This module initially explores the historical development of services and provision for children through the establishment of the Welfare State. It then considers how the dismantlement of welfare consensus through the rise of neo- liberalism challenged notions of social rights and focused on individualism and retrenchment until recently. The impact of these ideas on child welfare is reviewed in order to better explore contemporary approaches. Current services and provision that aim to address health inequalities, care and control the family, promote education attainment, tackle the social consequences of child poverty and promote the responsibilities of citizenship will also be examined with the understanding of the radical shift in ideas of social welfare in the recent past. A key aspect of the module throughout remains the relationship between the child, the family and the state.